Appearance, freedom and possible worlds: A Lesson from Nietzsche

Abstract

The present text is an analysis of the concept of appearance in Nietzsche’s work. The first part represents a comparison between the respective approaches of the concept in his early writing The Birth of Tragedy and his more mature work Twilight of the Idols, highlighting the Socratic illusion of reason. Having assumed the distinction between good appearances (masks) and bad ones (Vattimo), an affirmation or, respectively, a denial of life, the concept of appearance is consequently placed in relationship to the issue of perspectivism. In this context, what falls under scrutiny is the interconnectedness between appearance, on the one hand, and the seemingly conflictual couple order-liberty, on the other. In the last part, the concept of appearance is compared with the concept of fiction, the relation between appearance and liberty being deeply analysed through concepts such as “world” and “possible worlds”.

Keywords: Nietzsche, appearance, freedom, possible worlds, meaning of life, perspectivism


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